Izmir vilayet (province), western Turkey, 50
miles (80 km) north of the city of Izmir (Smyrna). It
shares the site of ancient Pergamum (q.v.), of which
there are extensive ruins remaining. The modern town lies
over the remains of the Roman city, while the remains of the
ancient Greek city with its acropolis lie northeast across
the Bergama River, on a high hill with terraced
slopes. Greek ruins also lie on the western outskirts. The
Archaeological Museum in town contains a large collection of
artifacts from the area, ranging in age from Paleolithic to
Byzantine. The town has cotton and leather industries, and
in the surrounding area there is farming in cotton, tobacco,
and grapevines. Pop. (1990) 42,554.
any of several types of village floor coverings handwoven in
the vicinity of Bergama, western Turkey, or brought
there for market from the interior of the country. Although
most Bergama carpets date from the 19th and 20th
centuries, rare examples survive from the 17th century.
bold patterns, usually in red, blue, and white, are highly
varied. Several designs, showing rows of panels or
centralized medallion designs, preserve the fashions of much
earlier centuries. Large central diamond designs, for
example, are derived from a wreath motif seen in Ottoman
court prayer rugs of the 17th century. The format of Bergama
carpets is usually more nearly square than in other
Turkish types, and the few known prayer rugs tend to be
unusually small. An erosive red-dye process sometimes causes
the pile to look as if it had been cut in relief.
during the years 197-159 B.C. by Eumenes II, King of
Pergammon, it was revealed by German archaelogists during
excavations made after 1865 in Pergammon and the remains
sent to Berlin. It was restored in the Berlin State Museum
and was opened to exhibition in 1871. After that date,
the museum acquired the name Pergammon Museum.
of Alexander the Great
This marble bust 42 cm in height was found during the
excavations at Pergammon and dates back to 3rd century B.C.
of the original busts of Alexander the Great made during his
lifetime, none have reached us todaay, we have only found
reproductions. The bust found in Pergammon is famous, it
being more realistic than the one in Louvre-Paris. (İstanbul